The drugs of choice are the antiretrovirals that block replication of the virus. In recent years, research has advanced very well. The HIV is normally treated with a combination of three different medications to be taken daily and in combination between them. This treatment is very effective and has minimal impact on daily life.
Thanks to the latest generation of drugs, you can live a long and normal life, provided you start early care, once known to be HIV positive. This is true for those who are contagious in adulthood; however adolescents born with the HIV, having had to start treatment at a young age, can develop a drug-resistant virus. For this reason, treatment is much more complicated.
Last generation is the vaccine Tat protein. This protein plays a key role in the viral replication process and the development of the disease, weakening the immune system with all the consequences. The purpose of the vaccine is to neutralize the Tat protein.
The administration of this protein would seem to induce an immune response capable of improving the effectiveness of anti-HIV drugs. This is evident from the significant increase in CD4 + T lymphocytes.
To assess the level of infection is, in fact, measured the number of CD4 T and the “viral load cells”, or the amount of virus in the blood. Up to now there is no therapy capable of totally eliminate HIV from the body. The disease is incurable in the sense that an HIV-positive will bring the virus for life. But thanks to antiretroviral therapies, it is possible to prevent replication in the body up to lower the viral load to a minimum. In this way, they will drastically reduce the damage on the immune system and the risk of transmission is reduced almost to zero.
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Classes of drugs for HIV therapy
The anti-HIV drugs are grouped into six classes according to their mechanism of action:
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)
- Protease inhibitors (PI)
- Fusion inhibitors
- CCR5 antagonists (CCR5s) (also called entry inhibitors)
- Inhibitors of integrase strand transfer (INSTIs)
There are more than 25 anti-HIV medicines belonging to these classes. In most cases, they are using combinations of one or more classes.
The antiretroviral drugs, currently used to treat HIV, can keep very low the level of virus in the blood, but they have no effect against that small percentage of viral particles “sleepers” who are responsible for the disease return when interrupting care.
In new types of therapies, however, the drug is deceptive virus, prompting him to escape from the cells in which it hides, and then start the immune system recognizes and destroys it.
Live with HIV
Living with HIV is not easy.
The awareness of being HIV positive forces you to look at your own life with different eyes. The outlook change as well as needs.
The certainties no longer seem such, relationships, sexuality, work, future.
The HIV is like a sword of Damocles, the AIDS is in fact always around the corner, ready to manifest itself in all its cruelty. This perspective does not outline certainly a good life.
Whether it is the asymptomatic early stage or late stage (AIDS, far more serious condition), subjects infected and unaware of their condition can be exposed to secondary conditions such as depression, anxiety, stress disorder. Furthermore, the impact of opportunistic infections make the situation even more complicated.
It is important to eliminate all prejudices and begin a process of acceptance of yourself. The virulence should also be cleared through positive attitudes.