Diabetes now represents a truly global epidemic with an estimated population of around 9% of adults over 18 years prevalence, equivalent to about 400 million people globally. It is also estimated that by 2035 could double the number of cases and would be the seventh leading cause of death.
Any strategy to control this disease is welcomed by the scientific community, governments and the general population, and in this sense, the oral health or rather its absence seem to have a role.
Furthermore, periodontal disease is the most prevalent in humans, specifically chronic periodontitis affects about 50% of the adult population.
The presence of active periodontitis, especially its most severe forms, is a real challenge to the body as the increase in local inflammation leads to an increase in systemic inflammation with consequences at all levels.
Thus, the presence of active periodontitis is associated with impaired glucose control and an increased prevalence of diabetes. The biological mechanisms underlying this association are given by the periodontal pathogenic bacteria that lodge in the periodontal pockets as deregulation of inflammatory cytokines both. Both can have a negative impact by increasing the body’s resistance to insulin and causing a decrease in the function of beta cells of the pancreas. It has also been observed that cardiovascular disease and may be more prevalent in diabetic patients with the severe periodontal disease, and mortality may be higher.
Similarly, it has been observed in some studies that periodontal treatment can improve glycemic control significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin values, a reference value for good control of diabetes. Some studies even mentioned that this decline can be compared to the administration of the second drug for diabetic control.
In short, an adequate control of oral health can report many beneficial effects both locally and systemically greatly improving the quality of life and reducing the serious complications of diabetes sufferers.